Computer network is an interconnection of computer for sharing of information according to some specified rules or protocols. This data is transmitted through OSI (open system interconnection) model. In this process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network. A network is a group of devices connected to each other. Networks may be classified into a wide variety of characteristics, such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, benefit, and organizational scope. In this article I will make you aware about the some of the common terms used in the field of networking:

· Computer Network: Computer network is an interconnection of computer to transmit information between computers through a communication channel. This can also be classified on the basis of flow of information like as half duplex and full duplex.

· Network Topology: Network topology is a geographical representation of network. In general, a computer network is technically classified based on the topology of the total network which includes the structure of the networks too. They are divided into Bus networks, Ring network, Star network, Mesh network, Star-bus network, Tree network, Hybrid network.

· Routers: Routers is a device which is designed to forwards the data packets that it receives, to the next available or neighboring between the networks.

· Switches: Switches are the virtual controllers of routers and bridges. Switches control the flow these are operated from each of the individual layers of the OSI layer. Certain cases where the devices operate on multiple layers are called multilayer switch.

· Bridges: Technically, a bridge acts a connector between the data link layer and the network layer. The three types of bridges are Local Bridges, Remote Bridges and Wireless bridges. Bridges come in three basic types:

1. Local bridges: Directly connect LANs

2. Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers.

3. Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote stations to LANs.

· Network Cards: Network cards are the most important hardware component of a network. The most important functionality of the layer is to enable communication between the computers in a network.

· Firewalls: A firewall is an important aspect of a network with respect to security. It typically rejects access requests from unsafe sources while allowing actions from recognized ones. The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in ‘cyber’ attacks for the purpose of stealing/corrupting data, planting viruses, etc.

· Repeaters: A repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal, cleans it of unnecessary noise, regenerates it, and retransmits it at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters.

· Hub: A repeater with multiple ports is known as a hub. Repeaters work on the Physical Layer of the OSI model. Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. This can cause a propagation delay which can affect network communication when there are several repeaters in a row. Many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row.

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